A quantitative means was developed to investigate the sensitivity of current spacecraft sterilization plans to variations in D-values. A quantitative expression was derived to represent the distribution of D-values among a population of naturally occurring organisms. An investigation was made of (1) the inactivation of both Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores and Cape Kennedy soil spores by gamma-radiation at room temperature in a nitrogen environment, and (2) the thermoradiation resistance of Cape Kennedy soil spores at elevated temperatures below 125 C. The relation between standard survival experiments with bacterial spores in soils and results obtained on spacecraft surfaces is discussed. Sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde can be increased by elevating the temperature.